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extensions of cortex between the renal pyramids are given a special name: the columns of Bertin
Arterial supply to the adrenal comes from branches of the inferior phrenic artery, aorta, and renal artery
adrenal cortex is composed of three distinct areas: the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis
adrenal medulla receives preganglionic sympathetic input
pancreas is closely related to the left adrenal gland and the upper pole of the left kidney
The second portion of the duodenum also receives the common bile duct
Posterior urethral valves occur in 1 in 8000 to 25,000 live births
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers enter the retroperitoneum through both the paired sympathetic chains and input from the lumbar spinal nerves
Leydig cells differentiate from mesenchymal precursor cells in the connective tissue stroma of the testis between the seminiferous tubules
10th, 11th, and 12th ribs safeguard the upper retroperitoneal Space
type II valve is arising from the verumontanum and extending along the posterior urethral wall
Common iliac arteries lie anterior to iliac veins
2 to 3 months after birth, a second wave of Leydig cell differentiation occurs
insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have pronounced stimulatory effects on reproductive function
onset of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in fetal Leydig cells is independent of stimulation by gonadotropin
The pubertal onset of GnRH pulses typically occurs at night
The adipocyte hormone leptin is now thought to affect the timing of puberty
As men age beyond 50 years serum testosterone levels decline
Puberty is also influenced by the growth rate and nutritional status of the body
LH stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone

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