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Imaging studies are not required in most women with UTIs.
The urine must be refrigerated immediately on collection and should be cultured within 24 hours of refrigeration.
In diagnosing patients, 102 cfu/mL confirms a symptomatic UTI.
Incontinence is a major problem for posterior urethral valve patients
patients who have stopped smoking at least 8 weeks preoperatively will significantly lower their complication rate
testosterone levels return to baseline within 3 to 6 months after cessation of short-term gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment
patients with relatively minor comorbidities can tolerate hematocrit of greater than 21% before transfusion is indicated
Ureteral dilation is not necessary in every ureteroscopic intervention and should be performed only when ureteroscope passage is impaired.
Fibromuscular hyperplasia is a rare disease, constituting 3% of fibrous lesions, and tends to occur in children and young adults
electrolyte abnormality in jejunal conduit is a hyperkalemic, hyponatremic metabolic acidosis
Approximately 70% of all renovascular lesions are caused by atherosclerosis
The holmium:YAG laser is recognized to be the gold standard for ureteroscopic intracorporeal lithotripsy.
intervention indication in ischemic nephropathy is high-grade stenosis (<75%) involving the entire renal mass (bilateral disease or disease in a solitary kidney
Management of urethral tape erosion involve transvaginal urethrotomy and excision of the exposed tape
TVT has successful outcomes for women with mixed urinary symptoms as well as stress incontinency
cardiac output in children is heart rate dependent, because the stroke volume is relatively fixed
Proper intrauterine growth and development are absolutely dependent on the presence of normal amniotic fluid volume,
Venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) in children are rare when compared with adults.
At 10 to 12 weeks’ gestation, the fetal kidneys begin to produce urine
Blood volume in children varies with age, but can be estimated as 70 to 80 mL/kg

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