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The testis contains 250 meters of seminiferous tubules
Spermatogenesis occurs in stages, cycles, and waves to ensure constant sperm production.
During passage through the epididymis, sperm mature by gaining progressive motility and the ability to bind to and penetrate the egg zona pellucida.
The vas deferens is of wolffian (mesonephric) duct origin
It is estimated that 200 to 300 genes regulate sperm motility.
Ninety percent of crossed ectopic kidneys are fusedtogether
Fibers emerge from the second, third, and fourth sacral spinal nerves to form the pelvic splanchnic nerves (nervi erigentes)
superior hypogastric plexus is formed by sympathetic fibers from the celiac plexus and the first four lumbar splanchnic nerves
hypogastric artery descends in front of the SI joint and divides into an anterior and a posterior trunk
Scarpa's fascia may be difficult to discern in older patients
Normal ureteral peristalsis originates and is propagated from intrinsic smooth muscle pacemaker sites located in the minor calyces of the renal collecting system
Normal ureteral peristalsis does not require outside autonomic input
If any motile sperm are found in the ejaculate 3 months after vasectomy, the procedure should be repeated
Urinary retention is the most common voiding dysfunction seen in HIV positive patients
HPV infection increases the risk for carcinoma, especially in HIV-infected hosts
the common iliac arteries are anterior to the common iliac veins
screening for prostate cancer should not be any different for vasectomized men
Vasectomy disrupts the blood-testis barrier, resulting in detectable levels of serum antisperm antibodies
Hematoma is the most common complication of vasectomy
Urinary retention is the most common voiding dysfunction seen in HIV positive patients

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