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Zimskind in 1967 was the first to describe endoscopic stent placement to relieve ureteral obstruction
Perioperative hypothermia of even 1° C to 2° C is associated with increased estimated blood loss
Hypothermia was associated with a three times increased risk of wound infection
current indications for FFP transfusion are immediate reverse of warfarin-induced coagulopathy
an upper pole “cyst” in a fetus should be interpreted as being upper pole hydronephrosis until proven otherwise
The majority of ureteroceles and ectopic ureters are detected through prenatal ultrasound
Because the ureteral bud derives from the wolffian duct, the ectopic ureter will not insert directly into the müllerian structures
recent data have suggested that PCNL is possible in very young children using adult-sized equipment
most common intrascrotal pathology in AIDS is testicular atrophy
As pregnancy progresses beyond the 20th week the technical possibility of performing laparoscopic procedures decreases significantly
a working pneumoperitoneum of 10 mm Hg is recommended in the pregnant patient laparoscopy
Urinary tract infection occurs in 4% to 25% of patients undergoing ureteroscopy
Shorter operative times and reduced costs have been demonstrated when ureteral access sheaths are utilized during ureteroscopy
incidence of stricture after ureteroscopy with a ureteral access sheath has been demonstrated to be the same as that with ureteroscopy alone
Whether obesity affects surgical outcome with TVT is controversial
post tention free tape procedure cure rates in older women with urethral hypermobility are comparable to those in younger women
hypermobility is a secondary finding noted in association with incontinence but not causative of the condition of effort-related urinary loss
after erosion of synthetic or natural materials into the bladder or urethra, autologous fascia is probably the best material to use
Autologous pubovaginal sling is probably the best option for treating loss of proximal urethral closure function
Patients with a suspected seminal vesicle abnormality or mass felt on rectal examination should first have TRUS

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