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Obstructive uropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in children and accounts for 16.3% of children presenting for transplantation
Ultrasound appearance is a method of estimating the amount of dysplasia present in the kidneys of posterior valve patients
Oligohydramnios earlier than 20 weeks is usually incompatible with life
The primary goal of management in posterior urethral valves is to preserve renal function
complete duplication in the sagittal plane is the most common bladder duplication anomaly
Dilatations of the fetal bladder caused by anatomic obstructions are mostly due to urethral anomalies or external obstruction
patients with a body mass index (BMI) of greater than or equal to 45 kg/m2 may lose anywhere from 8 to 13 years of life
greatest risk in the hypothyroid patient is thyrotoxicosis or thyroid storm
patients who have ceased smoking for more than 6 months have a pulmonary morbidity comparable with nonsmokers
patients with penile primary tumors exhibiting favorable histologic features (stages Tis, Ta, T1; grade 1 and grade 2 tumors) are at a lower risk for metastases.
Hypercalcemia without detectable osseous metastases has been associated with penile cancer
Most tumors of the penis are squamous cell carcinomas
HPV-16 appears to be the most frequently detected type in primary carcinomas of male external genitalia
Neonatal circumcision has been well established as a prophylactic measure that virtually eliminates the occurrence of penile carcinoma
Carcinoma in situ (Tis) of the penis is called erythroplasia of Queyrat
routine ureteral stent insertion is not necessary after SWL for ureteral calculi
Zimskind in 1967 was the first to describe endoscopic stent placement to relieve ureteral obstruction
Perioperative hypothermia of even 1° C to 2° C is associated with increased estimated blood loss
Hypothermia was associated with a three times increased risk of wound infection
current indications for FFP transfusion are immediate reverse of warfarin-induced coagulopathy

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